How To Choose Motor For Quadcopter

How To Choose Motor For Quadcopter – Many people have asked me how to properly size your motors for your quad. Especially today, when we have so many engine options available to us. The following items should be considered when choosing the right motor for your racing drone or multi-rotor:

Your frame type will determine many factors, such as what size props you can run and what size motor you can mount.

How To Choose Motor For Quadcopter

How To Choose Motor For Quadcopter

The size of motor you should choose depends mainly on the size of your drone or quadcopter. So, the first thing to consider when choosing the right setup is what size drone you want to build, what size props your chosen frame can handle, and what batteries you want to use. Are you building a racing drone? Freestyle acro flyer? Or are you building something to drag the camera and get the best possible flight time?

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Many motor types and many stator/KV combinations are available. The goal is to build a well-balanced, well-designed system that fits your flying style, purpose of drone, and size of drone.

Properly sizing your engine will give you longer flight times, longer equipment life, less wear and lower temperatures.

Your frame will determine the size of your brace. So if you choose the QQ190, for example, you can run 5-inch props or 4-inch props, but for this example, we’ll choose to run 5-inch props because that’s what the QQ190 is designed to use. But since this is the largest size used in our production.

Classify your motors by stator size first and after considering other factors by KV.

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Here at QQ we found a good starting guide for converting stators to propeller size:

Choosing the right motor comes down to weight, power, efficiency, and torque, and the importance of each is ultimately determined by your flying style and what you’re trying to achieve with a multi-rotor design. Ideally, you should try to engineer your quad to fly efficiently and generate enough thrust without completely killing the battery. You’ll also want to build your quad for your flying style. A full drag racer will have a different suitable engine than a free quad. A motor with a larger stator will also be heavier and have a slower response time due to its moment of inertia. Ideally, you should be able to choose a motor that is efficient, doesn’t draw too many amps, isn’t too heavy, and has the power to get the job done.

A good nunomic wept to remember is – guys who didn’t pick the right motor for their quad build cried about cooking their batteries.

How To Choose Motor For Quadcopter

The general idea you’ll want to follow is to order the following power weight efficiency and torque based on preference for your individual build and flying style. Once this preference is made, finding your perfect engine will be easy.

Quadcopter Motor Types

A lighter engine will have faster revs and decelerations, which will result in quicker gear changes.

A heavier motor takes longer to rev and decelerate, resulting in slower gear changes.

A lighter motor will probably feel more accurate in the air and the pids will be easier to adjust.

Lighter engines are more prone to damage, so heavier engines may be better for beginners.

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If you’re into real racing, a heavier motor might be better, however, if you do a lot of stunts and aerial stunts, go for a lighter motor.

High performance quads have a better power-to-weight ratio. Engines can also be a big part of that, so keep that in mind.

Motor efficiency affects flight time, voltage drop, and battery life. You want to choose an engine that is most efficient not only at the best RPM, but throughout the entire operating range.

How To Choose Motor For Quadcopter

Remember that your battery needs to support whatever amp power is at WOT and the shorter the battery the less capable it is of passing large currents.

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A higher KV motor may be more efficient in the higher rpm range, but at the expense of torque.

Flying style also plays a role in selecting efficiency. For a high-budget drag racer operating consistently at WOT, efficiency may not factor into your decision, while if you’re trying to build a freestyle flyer with excellent flight times, cheaper batteries may be used. The lower the cost of escs, the more effective you will be.

The thrust output of your engines has a lot to do with the one you choose. Looking at full power is a good thing, but not everything. A light quad with engines producing good thrust in the air will feel the same as a heavy quad with engines producing maximum thrust. Ultimately, you’ll want to make sure you have enough thrust to fly well. A good rule of thumb for a quadcopter is to aim for a 4:1 power to weight ratio. It’s common to see that number double to 8:1 or more on racing quads.

To calculate your power to weight ratio, you need to calculate the maximum static power of the motor divided by the weight of the quad. For example, the QQ190RTF’s power-to-weight ratio can be calculated by taking the maximum thrust of the QQ 2205 2450 kv motor with HQ5x4x3 props (4241.56 grams) and dividing it by the total weight of the quad using the Tattu 4S 1300. mAh battery. (471.2 grams). The result is an incredible 9:1 power-to-weight ratio. This is more than double the power required for aerobatic flight and will create an amazing flying experience.

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We could have chosen the high thrust output qq190RTF motors to go with this quad, but that wouldn’t have been a good choice as the motors in the QQ190 only draw 24A at full power with HQ 5x4x3 props. This is important not only to make our special 2-in-1 ESC happy, but also to save the battery. With this combination, a 1300 75C battery that can handle 97.5A is ideal for this quad. If we had used a motor that drew more than 30A, we would have had to redesign our ESCs, battery recommendations, and possibly the overall design.

An often overlooked and very important factor when choosing a motor is torque. Torque affects the time it takes for the propeller to reach the desired speed. So a motor with more torque will be easier to tune and make the quad more accurate in the air. Stator size affects torque output, larger stators tend to produce more torque, while smaller stators produce less.

Advances in multi-motor technology such as N52 magnets, curved magnets, smaller clearances, and .15mm stator laminations allow smaller motors to generate more torque and are one of the reasons we’ve seen a shift in racing drone performance in recent years. Many years.

How To Choose Motor For Quadcopter

This is where things get a little complicated. Kv is usually measured in RPM per volt. Although this is a very good way to quickly calculate the no-load speed of a motor when a voltage is applied, it is not technically the correct way to think about it. Motor KV does not tell how much power the motor has, how much current it can handle or how efficient the motor is! You need to find push tests to figure that out.

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When a magnet pulls on a copper wire, electricity is created in the form of a voltage. This means that when the motor rotates, it creates a back emf that can be measured as a voltage.

The correct way to think of Kv is to think of it as a motor constant. If you rotate the motor, it will generate 1V at a certain number of revolutions per minute. The resulting RPM is the Kv of that motor.

If the motor generates 1V back emf at 2300 rpm, we can determine that it is a 2300 kv motor. If the motor produces 1V at 1900 rpm, we can determine 1900 sq.ft.

! Remember, Kv does not tell how powerful the motor is, how much current it can handle, or how efficient the motor is.

Choosing Motors And Propellers For Multi Rotors

A small motor and a large motor will have the same Kv constant. A larger engine will prove more powerful than a smaller engine. So you don’t need to use Kv to tell you how powerful your engine is. Doing Kv helps us understand the current requirements of the engine to produce a certain amount of torque… because Kv is directly related to the torque constant.

KV to understand the current requirements

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