# What Is The Current Discount Rate

What Is The Current Discount Rate – In financial models, the discount factor is a decimal number multiplied by the cash value to return it to its present value. The factor increases over time (meaning the decimal value decreases) because the effect of adding a discount rate increases over time.

In practice, the XNPV function is easier to use in Excel. However, the advantage of manually calculating the discount factor is that, unlike the overall NPV, you can see what the present value of each cash flow is.

## What Is The Current Discount Rate Some analysts prefer to calculate explicit discount factors at each period so that they can see the impact of the merger more clearly, and the discounted cash flow, or DCF, model is easier to control.

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The discount factor is an alternative to using the XNPV or XIRR functions in Excel. In the example below, you’ll see how it’s used in a spreadsheet.

The formula for calculating the discount factor in Excel is the same as Net Present Value (NPV formula).

In period 6, the 6th year of discounting, the number in the formula will be:

If the unaccounted cash flow for that period is \$120,000, we multiply it by 0.564 to get the present value of that cash flow to \$67,646.9.

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The total NPV of the cash flows in the example above is \$737,348.1, which can be calculated by summing the individual discounted cash flows. Using the NPV function in Excel, we come up with the exact same number.

Analysts will use discount factors when running financial models in Excel if they want to be more visible in the NPV formula and better reflect the effect of discounting.

As you can see in the example above, each dollar of cash flow received in year 10 is worth 38.6% of each dollar of cash flow received today. Once you’re out 15 to 20 years, the cost of cash flows is greatly discounted. Because the risk of never getting them increases so much, the opportunity costs become higher. You can determine exactly how many days are in each period by using the discount factor. You can always do this by using specific dates and getting the difference between them.

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For example, from June 30, 2018 to December 31, 2018, there are 184 days, which is half a year. By including this additional layer in the model, we can be more precise about our discount periods. This achieves the same effect as using the XNPV function and the XIRR function in Excel.

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### Solved Suppose The Current One Year Rate Of Interest Is 4%.

The discount factor is used to calculate the value (present value or “PV”) of receiving \$1 at some point in the future, based on the date of receipt and an assumption of the discount rate.

The present value of cash flows (that is, the value of future cash flows in today’s dollars) is calculated by multiplying the cash flows for each expected year by a discount factor and a discount factor based on the relevant time period.

There are generally two approaches to calculating the discount factor, but in both cases the function of the discount factor is:

The discount rate can be thought of as representing the interest income you could earn by investing that dollar if you bought it today.

## Solved Suppose You Bought A 15 Year Annuity Of \$8,000 Per

The reason you get \$1 today instead of \$1 three years from now is because if you take \$1 from now, you’ll completely miss out on three years where you could have made more than \$1 by investing in that \$1. The end of that time.

Both formulas can be used in Excel; however, we’ll use the first formula in the example because it’s a bit more convenient (ie, Excel resets the formula to the first formula).

To arrive at the present value using the first approach, the factor is multiplied by the cash flow to get the present value (“PV”). Although the discount rate is constant in the projection, the number of periods increases over time, causing the factor to decrease.

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Note that the period can be as long as you like (years, months, days, even hours) – but it’s important to ensure that the discount fits within the intended period.

Generally speaking, the discount factor, which is always calculated by dividing by one, lowers the cash flow values. This also ties in with what we discussed earlier, that getting \$1 today is worth more than getting \$1 in the future.

Assuming a 10% discount rate and a one-year horizon, the discount factor to relate this to the \$1 example would be:

For example, \$1 taken a year from now would be worth \$0.91 today.

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The formula for the second approach is identical except for the absence of a negative sign for the period number.

Unlike the first approach, the present value formula divides the cash flow by the discount factor.

As opposed to decreasing over time, in this case the factor is increasing – so the decline in recent years to present value is more pronounced. Returning to the \$1 example with the same discount rate of 10% and a one-year maturity, the calculation is:

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So, as we can see, both methods calculate the same price for \$1 a year from today (\$0.91).

For example, the discount rate in 2021 is 0.91 after adding 10% to 1 and then multiplying by -1 for the corresponding period.

Then 0.91 is multiplied by the \$100 cash flow to get \$91 as the PV of the year 1 cash flow.

At the end of year 5, we can see a discount factor of 0.91 to 0.62 at the end of the forecast period due to the value of money.

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Note how the cash flow is divided by the discount factor to get the present value.

A discount rate of 10% for 2021 is added to 1, raised to the exponent of 1, because this is the first forecast year. So the output is 1.10.

In contrast, the factor increases over time in approach 2 because cash flows are divided by a factor of >1. The year 1 cash flow is then divided by 1.10 to get \$91 for the PV of the cash flow.

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In the final output page below, the present values ​​of the cash flows calculated by both approaches result in the same numbers.

Ultimately, it doesn’t matter which approach you take because the rationale and effect of the discount factor is the same.

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